Internet of Things

Internet of Things – Basic Knowledge For Beginners

Spread the love

The Internet of Things, or IoT, is a computer network of mechanical and digital devices, objects, animals, or people with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transmit information unimpeded over the network. Human or human-machine interactions.

The Internet of Things can be anything with a heart rate monitor, a farm animal with a biochip, a car built with sensors that warn the driver when a tire is too high, or anything else natural or artificial. Device to which an IP (Internet Protocol) address can be assigned and which allows data to be sent over a network.

More and more businesses across all industries are using the IoT to work better, better understand customers, and create better customer experiences, better delivery, and more profitable operations.

How Does the Internet of Things Work?

The IoT ecosystem consists of intelligent Internet devices that use embedded systems such as processors, sensors, and communications hardware to collect, transmit, and process information from their surroundings. IoT devices share sensor data by connecting to IoT gateways or other devices at the edge, where the data is sent to the cloud or to objects.

Sometimes these devices communicate with other connected devices and respond to information received from each other. Most inventors do their work without the affection of people, although people interact with inventions, such as teaching, education, and information.

Connectivity, connectivity, and communication with these web-based devices depend on the implementation of specific IoT applications.

The IoT can also use artificial intelligence and machine learning to streamline and speed up the assembly process.

Why is the Internet of Things Important?

The Internet of Things helps people live and work and take full control of their lives. Apart from providing smart devices to automate homes, IoT is also essential for businesses. IoT gives businesses real-time insight into how their systems are actually performing, providing insight into everything from engineering to supply chain and logistics operations.

IoT allows companies to automate processes and reduce operational costs. It also reduces waste and improves service delivery to more easily manufacture and deliver goods while providing transparency to the customer’s business.

Therefore, IoT is one of the most important technologies in everyday life and is expected to grow in importance as companies increasingly realize the potential of connected devices to stay competitive.

What Are The Benefits of IoT To Organizations?

The Internet of Things offers many benefits to companies. Some interests are industry-specific, others multi-industry. Some common advantages IoT allows companies;

  • Monitoring of all processes
  • Improve Customer Experience (CX)
  • But time and money
  • Increases worker productivity
  • Installers and adapters for commercial models
  • To judge things better
  • Generate more revenue

IoT encourages companies to rethink how they do business and provides them with tools to improve business strategies.


In general, IoT is commonly used in manufacturing, utilities, and utilities, where sensors and other IoT devices are deployed. The use case is also known for organizations in the rural, infrastructure, and home automation sectors, which is forcing some organizations to switch to a digital number.

Benefit Farmers in Agriculture

IoT can benefit farmers in agriculture, making their work easier. Sensors can collect data on rainfall, humidity, temperature, and soil content, among other things that can help with automated farming techniques.

Monitor Infrastructure-Infringing Activities

The ability to monitor infrastructure-infringing activities is also a factor that IoT can contribute to. Sensors can be used, for example, to monitor emotional events or changes in buildings, bridges, and other infrastructure. This results in cost savings, time savings, life changes, and endless benefits.


A home automation company can use IoT to monitor and manage the mechanical and electrical aspects of a building. On a larger scale, smart cities can help citizens reduce waste and energy consumption. IoT is impacting all industries, including healthcare, finance, retail, and manufacturing companies.

What are the pros and cons of Internet of Things?

Advantages in theInternet of Things

IoT has some advantages:-

  • Ability to access information from anywhere in any skill
  • Improved communication between connected electronic devices
  • You can transfer data over a connected network and save time and money
  • Automated functions that help improve the quality of company services and eliminate the need for human intervention are being exploited.

Disadvantages in the Internet of Things

Disadvantages of IoT include:-

  • ┬áMore data is exchanged between devices, so does the risk of hackers stealing sensitive data.
  • Enterprises will eventually be able to manage large numbers, perhaps millions, of IoT devices, and be able to collect and manage data from all those devices.
  • If something goes wrong with the system, there is a high probability that all connected devices will be damaged.
  • Since there is no international agreement for IoT. It is difficult for devices from different manufacturers to communicate with each other.

Internet of Things Standards

Internet of Things Standards

There are several IoT attacks, including the following:-

1. IPv6

IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) is an open standard defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The 6LoWPAN standard allows all wireless networks to communicate over the Internet

  • 804.15.4,
  • Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE),
  • Z-Wave (for home automation)

2. ZigBee

I is a low-data traffic wireless standard used primarily in commercial environments. ZigBee is based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.15.4 standard. The ZigBee Alliance created Dotdot, a global language for the IoT that allows the smartest devices to operate securely on any network and understand each other.

3. LiteOS

LiteOS is a similar operating system (OS) for wireless sensor networks. liteOS smartphones, wearables, smart apps, smart wearables, and Internet of Vehicles (IoV). The operating system also serves as a development platform for smart devices.

4. OneM2M

OneM2M is a machine-to-machine tool capable of connecting software and hardware devices. Leading engineering organization OneM2M was founded to develop a reusable model for deploying IoT applications over communication lines.

5. Data Distribution Service (DDS)

Developed by the Object Management Group (OMG), Data Distribution Service (DDS) is the IoT standard for powerful and scalable real-time M2M communications.

6. Advanced Message Queuing Protocol

The Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open-source protocol for sending asynchronous messages over the air. AMQP enables encrypted and interoperable messages between organizations and applications. The system is used in customer reporting and IoT device management.

7. Constrained Application Protocol

The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a protocol developed by the IETF that specifies how a number of electronic devices can operate in the Internet of Things.

8. Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN)

Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) is a protocol designed to support large-scale networks such as smart cities with millions of energy-efficient devices.

Internet of Things Frameworks

The IoT process includes the following elements:-

1. Amazon Web Services (AWS)

Amazon Web Services (AWS) IoT is a cloud computing platform for IoT published by Amazon. This framework aims to help smart devices easily connect and communicate securely with the AWS Cloud and other connected devices.

2. Arm Mbed Internet of Things

Arm Mbed is an IoT platform for developing IoT applications from microcontrollers. The purpose of the Mbed IoT platform is to provide a robust, connected, and secure environment for IoT devices by integrating Mbed tools and services.

3. Microsoft’s Azure IoT Suite

Azure IoT Suite from Microsoft is a platform that provides services that allow users to share and receive data from IoT devices and perform a variety of data processing tasks, such as B. inspecting, modify,ing and configuring their various functions. to fit into society.

4. Google’s Brillo/Weave

Brillo/Text by Google is a platform for the rapid delivery of IoT applications. The platform consists of two main parts: Brillow, an Android-based operating system for developing energy-efficient devices, and Weave, an IoT-oriented communication protocol that serves as a communication language between the machine and the cloud.

5. Calvin

It is an open IoT platform published by Ericsson for building and managing distributed applications that enable interactive devices. I includes the development process for developing the application and the time it takes to keep the application running.

Internet of Things Security and Privacy Issues

The Internet of Things connects billions of Internet devices and uses millions of data points, all of which need to be stored. Due to the widespread attack, IoT security and privacy are considered of utmost concern.

One of the most recent IoT attacks in 2016 was Mirai, a botnet that compromised Dyn’s nameservers and disabled many websites in a single period of time in one of the largest Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks of all time. I wait. Attackers access the network through vulnerable IoT devices.

Because IoT devices are so heavily interconnected, hackers only need to use simple hacks to view all the data and make it useless. Developers who do not update their tools regularly or at all leave themselves vulnerable to cybercriminals.

Additionally, connected devices often give users access to personal information, including names, ages, addresses, phone numbers, and even social media.

Hackers don’t just threaten the Internet; Privacy is another major concern for IoT users. For example, companies that make and sell IoT devices can use these devices to collect and sell personally identifiable information about users.

In addition to the loss of personal data, the IoT also threatens critical systems, including electricity, transportation, and financial services.

What is the History of Internet of Things?

Kevin Ashton

Kevin Ashton, co-founder of the AutoID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), first mentioned the Internet of Things in a presentation at Procter & Gamble (P&G). Introducing RFID to P&G senior executives, Ashton launched the 1999 “Internet of Things” to embrace a new phenomenon: the Internet. MIT professor Neil Gershenfeld also published his book, Thinking About Startups in 1999. They didn’t use a precise definition, but they clearly showed the evolution of the Internet.

The Internet of Things emerged from the integration of wireless technologies, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microservices, and the Internet. Convergence has helped break down the silos between operational technologies (OT) and information technologies (IT), for example by analyzing faulty machine data to generate ideas for improving operations.


When Ashton first mentioned the Internet of Things, the concept of connected devices had been around since the 1970s when he brought them to the Internet and the computer.

For example, Carnegie Mellon was the first company to provide Internet service to Coca-Cola University in the early 1980s. Thanks to the Internet, workers can monitor the status of the machine and see if cold water is waiting for them. The seller decided to go with the car.

IoT and M2M communication was born, i.e. the connection of devices to the network without intervention. M2M means connecting a device to the cloud, controlling it, and collecting data.

They are taking M2M to the next level, building sensor networks of billions of connected devices that connect people, machines, and other devices to collect and share data. Basically, M2M provides IoT connectivity.


SCADA is also an extension of the Internet of Things, a type of process control software that collects real-time data from assets to monitor machines and their health. This systems and control software. The hardware collects the data and sends it to the SCAD computer program, where it is then processed and displayed accordingly. The development of SCADA is so great that the new generation of SCAD systems has become the first generation of IoT systems.

However, the IoT ecosystem concept only emerged in the mid-2010s, when the Chinese government partially announced that it would make IoT a priority in its five-year plan.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *